Read Chapter 5, sections 3, 4, and 5
1.) Most of the atoms in the Universe are hydrogen atoms.
a.) Describe the interior of a hydrogen atom (i.e., what is in there and where is it, in relation to the other particles in the atom).
b.) Describe the interior of a carbon atom.
2.) What characteristic of a hydrogen atom makes it a hydrogen atom and not some
other type of atom, such as a carbon atom?
3.) Put these "phases of matter" in order from that which has the lowest
temperature (thus the least energy) to that which has the highest temperature:
fully ionized plasma, gas phase, liquid phase, plasma phase, solid phase.
a.) Which has more electical potential energy, a hydrogen in its ground state (level 1 in the energy level diagram in Figure 5.12) or in level 2?
b.) If an atom shifts from being in a more energetic state to a less energetic state, what happens to the energy that is freed-up?
c.) The energy levels in a the energy level diagram in Figure 5.12 are related to how "smeared out" the electron is (although the text didn't discuss this much). You have heard of "opposites attract", meaning that positively charged objects and negatively charged objects are attracted to each other. As a result, charged objects can have electrical potential energy, just as massive objects can have gravitational potential energy. We know that massive objects are gravitationally attracted to each other and we say that when two massive objects are widely separated, they have more gravitational potential energy than when their separation is small. Given that trend, would you say that when the negatively charged electron in a hydrogen atom is more spread out and thus further from the positively charge proton that it has more electrical potential energy or less potential energy than when it is nearer to the proton?
5.) How do molecules make light (other ways besides those described in your answer to
6.) In 15 to 45 words (each), summarize the circumstances under which objects produce: a.) thermal spectra b.) emission line spectra c.) absorption line spectra
7.) Suppose that the temperature of the Sun's surface were 12,000 K rather
than it current 6,000 K.
a.) Would it emit more light or less light than it currently does?
b.) How would the color of the emission compare with the current color?
8.) How fast does a spaceship with violet headlights
(the wavelength of this light is 400 nanometers)
have to travel in order for its light to look
orangy-red (the wavelength of this light is 600 nanometers)
a.) 1/6 c
b.) 1/4 c
c.) 1/2 c
d.) 2/3 c
e.) 3/2 c
9.) Regarding the previous problem, which direction relative
to you would the
spacecraft have to be traveling in order for you to see this effect?
a.) Toward you
b.) Away from you
c.) Perpendicular to the line between you and it
d.) Any direction
10.) You will have to read a little of Section 5.2 for this:
a.) Which of these are types of light and which of these are types of sound: gamma rays, infrared photons, radio waves, ultraviolet photons, visible photons, and X-rays
b.) Re-order the above so that it is in the order from the least energetic to the most energetic.