for Chapter S4
- What do we mean by the quantum
realm? What is quantum mechanics?
- What do we mean by
fundamental particles? How do we investigate fundamental particles in
particle accelerators? What is the standard model?
- What is spin? What are
the two basic categories of particles based on spin?
are quarks and leptons? Explain why we say that quarks and leptons are subsets of the fermions.
the six quarks and six leptons in the standard model. Describe the quark
composition of a proton and of a neutron.
- What are neutrinos? Why
might they be important to the overall mass of the universe?
- What is antimatter? How
does a positron differ from an electron?
- What happens when a
particle and its antiparticle meet?
- How is antimatter produced,
and why is it always produced along with matter in pair production?
the four fundamental forces in nature, and name the exchange
particles for each.
- Describe the relative
strengths of the four forces. Why does gravity dominate on large scales,
even though it is by far the weakest of the four forces?
strong force is the force that holds the protons and neutrons in the nucleus together.
Based on the fact that most atomic nuclei are stable, briefly
explain how you can conclude that the strong force must be even
stronger than the electromagnetic
force, at least over very short distances.
- What is the uncertainty
principle? How is it related to the idea of wave-particle duality?
- Describe two ways of
quantifying the uncertainty principle, and give
an example showing the meaning of each.
- What do we mean by the quantum
state of a particle?
- What is the exclusion
principle? What types of particles obey it?
- What is degeneracy
pressure? How does it differ from thermal pressure?
How is it important in astronomy?
- Explain why
the uncertainty principle implies that the particles in a highly
compressed plasma must move at very high speeds.
How does this fact explain why there is a limit to the strength of
degeneracy pressure? Why is this limit higher for neutron degeneracy pressure than for electron
whether the statement makes sense (or is clearly true) or does not make sense
(or is clearly false). Explain clearly; not all of these have definitive
answers, so your explanation is more important than your chosen answer.
- Although there are six
known types of quarks, ordinary atoms contain only two of these types.
- If you put a quark and a
lepton close together, they'll annihilate each other.
- There's no such thing as
antimatter, except in science fiction.
- Some particle accelerators
have been known to build up a huge electrical charge because of the
electrons produced inside them.
- According to the
uncertainty principle, we can never be certain whether one theory is
really better than another.
- The exclusion principle
describes the cases in which the uncertainty principle is excluded from
- No known astronomical
objects exhibit any type of degeneracy pressure.
- Although we speak of four
gravity, electromagnetic, strong, and weak -it is likely
that these forces are different manifestations of a smaller number of
truly fundamental forces.
- Imagine that, somewhere in
deep space, you meet a person made entirely of antimatter. Shaking that
person's hand would be very dangerous.
- Someday, we may detect
radiation coming from an evaporating black hole.